King's Bay Studies Conducted
A number of studies and projects have been conducted in Crystal River/King's Bay and its springshed through the years. A short description of some of the more informative studies is provided below in the form of the Executive Summary report.
Coastal Springs Restoration Project
In 1996/97 the County, in partnership with many State and Federal agencies, conducted a pilot project to remove sediments from two major spring vents (King and Hunter Springs), as well as pilot Lyngbya vacuuming in the Cedar Cove area. A final report was written in January of 1997 telling their findings.
Origin of Nutrients in Ground Water Discharging from The King's Bay Springs; July 1994 (Revised January 1998)
Staff of the SWFWMD Ambient Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Program conducted an indepth analysis and made an Executive Summary of existing ground water data with the objective of identifying nutrient sources within the Springshed. Utilizing ground water chemistry, modeling, and scientific literature, this report provides a compelling picture of development impacts within the Springshed and its effects on spring water quality.
An Evaluation of Factors Contributing to the Growth of Lyngbya spp.in King's Bay/Crystal River, Florida
The increasing occurrence of the bluegreen algae Lyngbya served as the impetus to a 1990 evaluation of the problem alga by Kenneth F. Romie of the SWFWMD. This evaluation provides a sobering picture of the factors that contribute to Lyngbya proliferation and the difficulties associated with its management/control.
Florida Springs: Strategies for Protection and Restoration
Governor Jeb Bush, in recognition that Florida's springs were a unique resource in need of research and protection, directed FDEP Secretary David Struhs to provide staff and support to a Governor-appointed Florida Springs Task Force. Composed of scientists, hydrologists, planners, representatives from agriculture, local government, bottle water companies and environmental advocates, led by Springs Coordinator Jim Stevenson, a veteran DEP administrator and a springs advocate in his own right, the Task Force produced a report of strategies to protect and restore Florida's springs. A subsequent Task Force is currently in place to facilitate implementation of the strategies. Mr. Stevenson has recently retired and the new Springs Protection Coordinator is Michael Bascom.
Sinkholes in Florida
It is often said that a sinkhole is nothing more than a spring without water. It is an accurate assessment and, in fact, one must always remember that a sinkhole provides the same access portal to our aquifer (and thus our drinking water) that a spring does. The Florida Geological Survey has produced an informative publication on sinkholes.
Protecting Florida's Springs
Land Use Planning Strategies and Best Management Practices; November 2002
If there is one lesson quickly learned by anyone studying springs, is that the quality and quantity of the water flowing from the springs is directly influenced by the landuse practices of the contributing springshed. These influences have long and often increasing impacts that are often not felt for many years. In recognition of this fact, the Department of Community Affairs, in partnership with the Florida Department of Environmental Protection produced a landmark guide specific to Florida to assist local governments and Florida's citizens in reducing or mitigating adverse land use practices.
Springs of Florida, Geological Bulletin No. 31 Revised
The Florida Geological Survey conducted a comprehensive review and analysis of Florida's springs which is featured in this publication.